In 1156 Yuri Dolgoruky built wooden walls around a trading post on the banks of the Moskva River. This small settlement quickly became a town and encompassed the southeast area of the modern Kremlin. In 16th century new streets and small settlements were built to surround the Kremlin and Kitai-Gorod. By 1593 the new area of Moscow was encircled by a white wall of 9 km length. and named Bely Gorod (White Town); today the walls of White Town have been replaced by Bulvarnoye Koltso, wide boulevards, which surround the city center. These boulevards are as follows: Prechistensky, Nikitsky, Tverskoi, Strastnoi, Petrovsky, Rozhdestvensky, Sretensky, Chistoprudny, Pokrovsky and Yauzsk.
Although Peter the Great (1672-1725) transferred the capital of Russia to St. Petersburg in 1713, Moscow’s borders and population still expanded and the city remained the heart of Russia – all Russian tsars were still crowned in Moscow's Dormition Cathedral within the Kremlin. By the 17th and 18th centuries European baroque and classic styles were introduced into Russia, these styles in turn were interpreted by Russians in a distinctive creative process that gave rise to pre-Revolutionary Moscow. During the Napoleon Wars (in Russia “The Patriotic War”), Russia united around Moscow. Napoleon and later Hitler understood that capturing and holding Moscow would be seizing the soul and heart of the Russian people. As we all know Napoleon retreated in defeat and ultimately died on St. Helena Island and the Soviets sacked Berlin in 1945 as Hitler committed suicide in a bunker.
After the October Revolt of 1917 drastic changes reshaped all of the Russian Empire. Mosow and other large cities experienced the most dramatic changes. Moscow's look and character often reflected the views and tastes of individual Communist leaders. On record the Soviets ordered four periods of reconstruction in Moscow. These attempts at town-planning created new highways, bridges, metro stations and skyscrapers but often at the cost of destroying many venerable buildings, churches, monasteries and monuments. Some might say that Moscow has lost it's historic beauty and charm; however, on an up note, many destroyed buildings and monuments are being rebuilt as Moscow faces the new century with more construction and economic potential than any other time in it's history.
Population: Greater metro area, 8,856,871
Flight times: Chicago-11.4 hrs., London-4 hrs., Los Angeles-14 hrs., NYC-10.5 hrs.
Sheremetyevo 2 International Airport, Phone: +7 (095) 956-4666, 578-9101. 578-4727 (inquiries), Website: http://www.sheremetyevo-airport.ru
This main international airport in Moscow is located about 18km (11mi) southwest of the city of Moscow. All prices in US dollars. Russian exchange rates fluctuates depending upon economic conditions. Taxi to the city center (45 minutes): $30
Sheremetyevo 1 Airport Phone: +7 (095) 578-2372 Website: http://www.sheremetyevo-airport.ru Located 5 kilometers from Sheremtyevo 2, this airport serves domestic Aeroflot flights and some charter flights. It’s not comfortable at all, so if you have some time before your flight, it’s better to spend it in Sheremetyevo 2. There is a shuttle service connecting both Sheremetyevo airports, departing every hour from Arrivals Exit of Sheremetyevo 2 Airport (ground floor, left wing facing the airport). Taxi to the city center (45 minutes): $30
Domodedovo Airport Phone: +7 (095) 933-6666, +7 (095) 363-3064 (inquiries) Website: http://www.domodedovo.ru
The best airport in Moscow, most comfortable and newly renovated. It serves most of the domestic flights (airlines: Sibir, Transaero, Pulkovo, East Line, etc.) and only two major international companies: Swiss Air and British Airways. There are a lot of amenities at the airport: a clean lobby, secure waiting area, good cafes and restaurants, business center. Taxi to the city center (1 hour plus): $50.
Moscow Railway Stations There are 9 train stations in Moscow. Each has the name of the main direction of the trains that depart from that particular railway station. All the railway stations are located close to the center of the city. For more information and schedules: http://waytorussia.net/Services/TrainTickets.html.