June 1, 2018

Roman Coliseum

The anniversary of Rome's foundation, April 21, 753BC, is marked by a public holiday. Few cities can expect to celebrate a 2760 year old birthday shortly.
Historians and archeologist trace Rome’s true origins from a ninth century BC pastoral settlement on banks of the Tiber River to an eighth century BC town that had developed along the trade routes that connected the Etruscans to the Greek colonies of the south. By the fifth century BC Rome was at the center of a nascent empire that would evolve into of a vast empire stretching from Britianna to Persia. Its population exceeded a million by the second century AD and by the 3rd century AD Rome at its peak had a population of 2 million. Rome’s fortunes vacillated during the Dark Ages and its population and importance had precipitously fallen by the Middle Ages; however the city saw a second period of development during the 15th century Renaissance when the Papacy took up permanent residence in the city. Although Rome's power has since waned, the city remains the soul of European civilization.
Rome was chosen as the capital after the unification of Italy in 1870 and it has remained the political, administrative and cultural center of Italy. The major growth of modern Rome took place during the century following reunification. Its population of 213,633 in 1871 reached 2.9 million in 1995.
Across the Tiber River to the west is the Vatican State (a sovereign enclave within Rome),home to the Pope and spiritual center of the Roman Catholic Church.

Please note that the city is blessed with a warm Mediterranean climate, making Rome pleasant to visit in autumn, spring and at times in the winter months but in July and August the weather becomes hot and humid and most of the locals exit for an extended holiday forcing many businesses to close for a month or so, but there are always tourist; they are a constant throughout the year. At times during August, the streets are strangely empty save for the tourist.

Population: city, 3,700,000; Time Zone: GMT/UTC +1 or Central European Time.
Flight times: Paris-2 hrs., London-2.5 hrs., Los Angeles-12 hrs., NYC-8 hrs.

Average temperature: 75°F (24° C) in summer and winter 45°F (7° C),Heaviest precipitation is December through February.
Average Daily High/Low Temperature:
• March - May: 68°f / 50°f, 20°c / 10°c
• June - Aug.: 86°f / 68°f, 30 °c / 20°f
• Sept. - Nov.: 72°f / 55°f, 22°c / 10°c
• Dec. - Feb.: 55° f/ 36°f, 13°c / 2°c

Leonardo da Vinci (Fiumicino) Airport

Located 11 miles from center city. Telephone: 43-1-7007-22233 (24 hours)
Leonardo DA Vinci (Fiumicino) Airport is 26km (16mi) southwest of the city. The main airport is Leonardo DA Vinci, also known as Fiumicino. The Ciampino Airport (Giovan Battista Pastine Airport in Ciampino)
All information:
Railway connection downtown Trains run between airport and Fara Sabina, every 20 min, from 6.28 a.m. to 00.13 a.m. and stop at Ponte Galeria, Muratella, Villa Bonelli, Magliana, Roma Trastevere, Roma Ostiense, Roma Tuscolana, Roma Tiburtino, Roma Nomentana, Nuovo Salario, Fidene, Settebagni, Monterotondo, Pianabella di Montelibretti. From 9,15 p.m. to 11.55 p. m. the last stop is Roma Tiburtina. Tickets may be purchased at vending machines located inside Domestic and International Arrival Halls and at the railway stations.
Buses to Rome are CO.TRA.L. service. Board near the International Terminal arrivals area. Roma Tiburtina Buses run from 01.15 a.m. to 5.00 a.m.
Best are the yellow and white licensed taxis with meters. The fare of the licensed public taxis are as follow: Leonardo DA Vinci - Rome: Fare on meter plus approximately 11 euros. Rome - Leonardo DA Vinci: Fare on meter plus approximately 14 euros flat rate. Surcharges may apply for baggage, night runs, Sundays and holidays.
Pubic Transit
There are two subway lines, A and B. Line A runs east to west from Battistini to Anagnina and stops at many tourist sites such as the Vatican, Piazza DI Spagna, Piazza Barberini and Piazza del Popolo. Line B runs northeast to southwest from Rebibbia to Laurentina near EUR in the south. It stops at sites such as the Coloseum, Circo Massimo, and St. Paul's Basilica. The B Line connects the three main railroad stations: Stazione Tiburtina, Stazione Termini and Stazione Ostiense. Both lines intersect at Stazione Termini. Subways run from 5.30 a.m. to 11.30 p.m. from Sunday to Friday , and until 12.30 a.m. on Saturday. There are buses to almost everywhere in greater Rome. The ATAC local buses serve the city center and most nearby suburbs. The city buses are an excellent way around Rome especially to places not served by the subway lines. The Express Lines cover longer distances and make fewer stops but run frequently. Another bus service, COTRAL, serves the outer suburbs and outlying regional areas but run less frequently. From 12 am (midnight) until 6 am there are special Night Lines which cover different areas of the city and run approximately every 20 minutes.
The last word
In Rome, it's best to walk. The historic center is relatively small even the shopping areas and the Vatican are all within walking distance of one another.
Although most of the historic center of Rome is closed to normal traffic, you will be allowed to drive to your hotel.

Capitoline Hill
Now the seat of the city's municipal government, it was the center of government of ancient Rome The piazza were designed by Michelangelo in 1538. It is bordered by three buildings (also by Michelangelo): the Palazzo Nuovo and the Palazzo dei Conservatori, which together house the Capitoline Museums, and the Palazzo Senatorio at the rear.
Castel Sant' Angelo
Now an interesting museum, Cross Bernini's Pont Sant' Angelo to reach this strange, circular building that was originally a mausoleum for Emperor Hadrian and them converted into a papal fortress in the 6th century; it is linked by underground passages to the Vatican.
Colonna, Campo Marzio and more... Shopping ... Shopping
The city is an incredibly varied shopping bizarre. Follow Rome’s cobbled streets and be surprised by unique specialty crafts shops, ancient delis and antique bookstores that are thriving next to sparkling high tech stores and innovative, high-quality boutiques purveying the handbags and shoes. For big-name designers go to the area around via Condotti or try via del Governo Vecchio where independent designers are clustered. There's also great shopping on via Cola DI Rienzo, a busy street near the Vatican.
Built over 900 years, the Roman Forum was the center of Roman life from the Republican era until the 4th century AD. The area was systematically excavated in the 18th and 19th centuries, and you can still see archaeological teams at work in ongoing digs.
Galleria Borghese
Cardinal Scipione Borghese great private collection and the mansion that houses it were acquired by the Italian goverment in 1902; a lengthy restoration took place in the 1990s. Bernini's spectacular carvings are the just one of the highlights of this collection. There are six Caravaggios, including the mannered Madonna dei Palafrenieri. Other artists include Giovanni Bellini, Giorgione, Veronese, Botticelli, Guercino, Domenichino, Rubens and others.
Marcus Agrippa's Pantheon is one of the world's most superb architectural creations. The perfectly proportioned floating dome rests on elegant columns and pediments. It was built in 27 BC, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in 120 AD. The Italian kings Victor Emmanuel II and Umberto I and the artist Raphael are buried here.
This hilltop resort town has been a popular summer playground since ancient times. Sadly the resort was constantly plundered however enough remains to reveal its former size and architectural sophistication. Highlights include Hadrian’s island villa, the Imperial palace with its piazza of gold, and the remains of Roman baths.
Don’t even think about not visiting the Vatican; its art collection, archectiture and above all a certain ceiling are considered the apex of Western Art. There is more art, architectural and decorative treasures in this tiny state that most cities in the world. The treasures range from the Sistine Chapel to Bernini's imposing piazza.
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